Presentations

Presentation Notes and References

Article Index

4. Morphology
6. Reproduction
7. Sharks most likely seen by Divers in Fiji
18. Ecology
19. Sharks in Peril
20. What can be done?

2. Sharks

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shark
• Marine
• Carnivores: Predators, Filter Feeders and Scavengers
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carnivorous
• Cartilaginous Skeleton
• Body compressed laterally
• 5-7 lateral Gills

3. Taxonomy

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxonomy
• Vertebrates
• Chondrichthyes
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chondrichthyes

Sharks

Among many Orders:

CARCHARHINIFORMES (GROUND SHARKS)
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carcharhiniformes

ORECTOLOBIFORMES (CARPET SHARKS)
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orectolobiformes

LAMNIFORMES (MACKEREL SHARKS)
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamniformes

APPROX. 400 SPECIES
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sharks

RECORDS
• http://www.new-brunswick.net/new-  brunswick/sharks/facts.html

 

4. Morphology

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morphology_(biology)

• http://www.marinebiodiversity.ca/shark/english/spiracle.htm

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dermal_denticle

• http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/caudal_keel

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tapetum_lucidum

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nictitating_membrane

 

5. Physiology

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physiology

Senses

• http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/anatomy/Senses.shtml

• http://www.elasmodiver.com/shark_senses.htm

• http://www.milton.edu/academics/pages/marinebio/shark.html

Smell

• http://www.elasmo-research.org/education/topics/s_nose.htm

• http://www.sharkinfo.ch/SI3_99e/noses.html

Vision

•http://www.elasmoresearch.org/education/white_shark/vision.htm

Electroreception

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroreception
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ampullae_of_Lorenzini

Lateral Line

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lateral_line

Osmoregulation

•http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sciences/Zoology/AnimalPhysiology/Osmoregulation/Osmoregulation.htm

Freshwater Tolerance

•http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sciences/Zoology/AnimalPhysiology/Osmoregulation/Osmoregulation.htm

•http://www.pewoceanscience.org/publications/files/papers/HammerschlagReview.pdf

• http://www.aquaticcommunity.com/sharkfish/freshwatersharks.php

• http://www.elasmo-research.org/education/topics/p_fw_rays.htm

Buoyancy

• http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/anatomy/Liver.shtml

•http://www.wildlifeonline.me.uk/questions_answers_elasmobranch.html

Body Temperature

• http://www.sharkology.com/temp.html

• http://www.elasmo-research.org/education/white_shark/p_body_temp.htm

• http://www.elasmo-research.org/education/topics/p_warm_body_1.htm

 

 6. Reproduction

• http://www.sharkology.com/temp.html

• http://www.discoverychannel.co.uk/sharks/reproduction/index.shtml

•http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/anatomy/Repro.shtml

Internal Fertilization

Birth

• Ovipary

• Vivipary

• Aplacental Viviparity (Ovoviviparity)

• Placental Viviparity

Vulnerabilities

• http://www.americanscientist.org/issues/pub/1999/11/sharks-beware/2

• http://www.americanscientist.org/include/popup_fullImage.aspx?key=Gl6eDNCARJn/0//Ghqehximi3VWiQj7u-

• Late Maturity

• Small Litter Size

7. Sharks most likely seen by Divers in Fiji

• Whale Shark

• Tiger Shark

• Bull Shark

• Hammerhead Sharks

• Grey Reef Shark

• Leopard Shark

• Silvertip Shark

• Whitetip Reef Shark

• Tawny Nurse Shark

• Sicklefin Lemon Shark

8. Whale Shark
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whale_shark

9. Tiger Shark
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiger_shark

10. Bull Shark
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bull_shark

11. Sicklefin Lemon Shark
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicklefin_lemon_shark

12. Silvertip Shark
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silvertip_shark

13. Tawny Nurse Shark
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tawny_nurse_shark

14. Zebra Shark
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zebra_shark

15. Blacktip Reef Shark
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blacktip_reef_shark

16. Hammerhead Sharks
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hammerhead_sharkScalloped Hammerhead
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalloped_hammerheadGreat Hammerhead
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_hammerhead

17. Grey Reef Shark
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grey_reef_shark

 

18. Ecology

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecology

Many Ecological Niches

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecological_niche

The Role of predatory Sharks

• http://www.oceana.org/sharks/media/oceana-publications/predators-as-prey/

• Essential Threads in Web of their Habitats

• Often, Apex Predators

• Maintain Health & Structure of Marine Ecosystems, by:

• weeding out the Sick and the Weak

• controlling the Population Sizes of their Prey

The Value of Sharks

•http://www.oceana.org/fileadmin/oceana/uploads/destructive_trawling/dive/sea_the_value/SeaTheValue_Final_web.pdf

 

19. Sharks in Peril

• http://www.oceana.org/sharks/media/oceana-publications/end-of-the-line/

IUCN: 79 Species critically imperiled

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Conservation_Union

• http://www.iucnredlist.org/static/categories_criteria_3_1

•http://www.theprovince.com/technology/Atlantic+sharks+risk+over+fishing+study/976868/story.html

80-100 Million per Year

• http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15020727/-

80%-99% of Stocks of oceanic Species wiped out

• http://wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com/2008/05/majority-of-oceanic-shark-species-face.html

• http://www.pewtrusts.org/news_room_detail.aspx?id=22874

Main Threats

Habitat Destruction

Overfishing

• 80-100 Million per Year

• http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15020727/

Shark Fin Soup

• http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/what_we_do/species/news/stories/?105060

•http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/12/10/pip.shark.finning/index.html

• http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/43159/newsDate/19-Jul-2007/story.htm-

Bycatch
• http://www.pacfish.org/sharkcon/documents/bonfil.html

Devastating Techniques

– Longlines

•http://ecosystempreservation.suite101.com/article.cfm/sharks_harmed_by_long_line_fishing

• http://www.oceana.org/sharks/threats/bycatch/longlines/

-Driftnets

• http://www.fao.org/fishery/fishtech/1093

• http://www.sharkinfo.ch/SI2_00e/mexico.html

• http://archive.greenpeace.org/majordomo/index-press-releases/1999/msg00187.html

– Shark Nets and Drumlines

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shark_net

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drum_lines

• http://www2.dpi.qld.gov.au/fishweb/2920.html

• http://www.theunderwaterchannel.tv/faces/mark/of-shark-nets-and-baited-drumlines-in-kwazulunatal-south-africa/

– Finning

• http://www.sharkfriends.com/sharks/sharkfinning.html

• http://www.sharktrust.org/content.asp?did=26881

• http://oceans.greenpeace.org/en/the-expedition/news/shark-fin-mystery

 

20. What can be done?

• Abrogating/Replacing Shark Fin Soup

• Conducting Shark Awareness Courses

• Obtaining Protection for threatened Species

• Solving the problem of the Drum-lines and Shark Nets

• Total Allowable Catch (TAC)

• Promoting Marine Protected Areas.

• Practice tag and release